At the time of the delay, all remaining contractual obligations are terminated and the remaining positive or negative items are consolidated into a single net liability or receivable. The result is an immediate realization of net gains or losses. Collateral is a contractual obligation for counterparties to deposit securities or cash against MTM`s losses. For example, the net exposure for the bank is large and positive in our example above. This means that in the event of default of the counterparty, the bank will lose a lot. A security agreement would reduce this risk by requiring the counterparty to deposit collateral with the bank to support the risk. However, in most cases, collateral constitutes a mutual guarantee, which means that each counterparty is required to deposit collateral against a negative MTM. In general, large derivative readers have the highest credit quality. Thus, before the 2007/2008 financial crisis, their credit spreads were only a few basis points per year. However, over the years, smaller players such as insurance and pension schemes have demonstrated high credit quality and have even managed to negotiate favourable business terms, such as single-use guarantee agreements. A repurchase transaction (or simply “repo”) is the sale of a security with the agreement of the seller to buy back the same security from the same buyer at an agreed price. The lender receives the repo rate, which combines a risk-free interest rate and a risk premium….